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The Tuskegee Experiment

The Tuskegee Experiment (From Truth-The Hemorrhage of Pigs!)

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

by Truth on Wednesday, December 28, 2011 at 3:00am

The Tuskegee syphilis experiment (also known as the Tuskegee syphilis study or Public Health Service syphilis study) was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in poor, rural black men who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government.

The Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began the study in 1932. Investigators enrolled in the study a total of 600 impoverished, African-American sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama; 399 who had previously contracted syphilis before the study began, and 201 without the disease. For participating in the study, the men were given free medical care, meals, and free burial insurance. They were never told they had syphilis, nor were they ever treated for it. According to the Centers for Disease Control, the men were told they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several illnesses, including syphilis, anemia and fatigue.

The 40-year study was controversial for reasons related to ethical standards; primarily because researchers knowingly failed to treat patients appropriately after the 1940s validation of penicillin as an effective cure for the disease they were studying. Revelation of study failures by a whistleblower led to major changes in U.S. law and regulation on the protection of participants in clinical studies. Now studies require informed consent (with exceptions possible for U.S. Federal agencies which can be kept secret by Executive Order), communication of diagnosis, and accurate reporting of test results.

By 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis. Choices available to the doctors involved in the study might have included treating all syphilitic subjects and closing the study, or splitting off a control group for testing with penicillin. Instead, the Tuskegee scientists continued the study without treating any participants and withholding penicillin and information about it from the patients. In addition, scientists prevented participants from accessing syphilis treatment programs available to others in the area. The study continued, under numerous US Public Health Service supervisors, until 1972, when a leak to the press eventually resulted in its termination. The victims of the study included numerous men who died of syphilis, wives who contracted the disease, and children born with congenital syphilis.

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, cited as “arguably the most infamous biomedical research study in U.S. history,”  led to the 1979 Belmont Report and the establishment of the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP). It also led to federal laws and regulations requiring Institutional Review Boards for the protection of human subjects in studies involving human subjects. The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) manages this responsibility within the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_syphilis_experiment

The Public Health Service Act of 1944 structured the United States Public Health Service (PHS) as the primary division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The PHS comprises all Agency Divisions of Health and Human Services and the Commissioned Corps. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.

Mission

The mission of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps is to protect, promote, and advance the health and safety of the United States. According to the PHSCC, this mission is achieved through rapid and effective response to public health needs, leadership and excellence in public health practices, and advancement of public health science.

Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Black Male

In 1932, the Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks. It was called the “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male”.

The study initially involved 600 black men – 399 with syphilis, 201 who did not have the disease. The study was conducted without the benefit of patients’ informed consent. Researchers told the men they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several ailments, including syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. In truth, they did not receive the proper treatment needed to cure their illness. In exchange for taking part in the study, the men received free medical exams, free meals, and burial insurance. Although originally projected to last 6 months, the study actually went on for 40 years. It has been called “arguably the most infamous biomedical research study in U.S. history.”

Note that a USPHS physician who took part in the Tuskegee program, John Charles Cutler, was in charge of the US government’s syphilis experiments in Guatemala, in which Guatemalan prisoners, soldiers, orphaned children, and others were deliberately infected with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases from 1946-1948 in order to study the disease, in a project funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health. President Obama apologized to Guatemala for this program in 2010.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Public_Health_Service

Diseases with which the CDC is involved in other than the Tuskegee Experiment is:

Influenza

The CDC has launched campaigns targeting the transmission of the flu, including the swine flu (H1N1). The CDC has launched websites including [flu.gov] to educate people.

Other infectious diseases

The CDC’s website (see below) has information on other infectious diseases, including smallpox, measles, and much more.

Non-infectious disease

The CDC also combats non-infectious diseases, including obesity.

http://www.cdc.gov/Features/Tuskegee/

 

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What is a Hemorrhage?

If all the people in the world were to lose the total of all of their blood, would the depth of it reach the moon?  If it did, would the moon turn “blood red”?

 

From the Beginning:  Hemorrhage

Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences) is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system.  Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body or externally, either through a natural opening such as the vagina, mouth, nose, ear or anus, or through a break in the skin. The complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination,  and desanguination is a massive blood loss. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10-15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties, and blood donation typically takes 8-10% of the donor’s blood volume…Death from bleeding can generally occur surprisingly quickly.  Cited from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bleeding

Definition of Hemorrhage

http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=14263

Hemorrhage: Bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood.

…an internal hemorrhage that is invisible or an external hemorrhage that is visible on the outside of the body. Bleeding into the spleen or liver is internal hemorrhage. Bleeding from a cut on the face is an external hemorrhage.

The term “hemorrhagic” comes from the Greek “haima,” blood + rhegnumai,” to break forth = a free and forceful escape of blood.

Hemorrhage and The Revelation Painting

Related to The Revelation Painting-Hemorrhage is tied to three major circumstances which are draining the life-sustaining blood from the fabric of our nation; first and foremost Politics, followed by Religion, and lastly corporate greed and deception.  Those factors influence us as human beings in our everyday lives and interactions with one another.  Therefore weakening our morals, our values and our beliefs.

From childhood we are taught to believe in our leaders, our teachers, our science and legal entities, our icons as role models and business.  Technically it is all business, like a big machine feeding off of the support of its people.  We are feeding this machine its fuel and our children are learning to feed this machine, followed by their children and so on.  What is currently breaking the machine is awareness.

What used to be a black and white, lifeless and impersonal “story” or article in a newspaper in which visualization was left to the imagination is now visual with color and aspects of humanity, and animated (ALIVE) images imprint our brain.  This imprint causes intelligent people to question what is happening when the foundations we were raised upon seem to be crumbling.

What happens to a society when you are a parent try to teach your child to respect the President of the country when the newspaper is open on the table with a comic of a girl under a table with her face pressed in the President’s pants, or the television is blaring “I did not have sexual intercourse…”  In order not to share the TRUTH with your child it would require no interaction with society.

Are you supposed to say:  “Honey, the President did something bad, something that was wrong but for the time being respect him because he is our leader, and the next President won’t do that.  We are all human beings and we have faults.”  True, but the simple fact of the matter is that we all do not represent our country as The President of The United States of America!  This is not only a disgrace but a hemorrhage!  

What do you tell your child Sunday morning when they are afraid to go to church because in a restaurant he heard a family talking about the priest with his hand in some little boy’s pants?  What possible cover story can we give for that!  “Oh honey, that priest was sick, not all priest are like that.”  Then in the evening news the child hears hundreds of priest are pedophiles.  This is a hemorrhage!

Your child comes home from school and says the teacher kissed me on the mouth mom…You think, well…maybe it was an innocent showing of affection, inappropriate but it showed love and not the hate exploding all over the world…you let it go.  A month later a teacher’s face is plastered all over the media that she had sex with her minor students!  Another hemorrhage!

You, now because of your leaders, priests’ and teachers have become the bad guy in your child’s eye.  Why?  Because YOU are a liar!  You have now damaged that child, your child forever.  Respect is lost by your honest effort to play the game.  All adults are liars and freaks and what they do or say can and will change at anytime.  Trust is lost.

Your child’s grades begin to suffer because they become confused.  Respect for our leaders begin to dwindle away, therefore respect for one another because we all become liars and potential violators in a society…The general attitude becomes:  if a President, Priest, or teacher will do something like that you’d better believe you will too!  We as a society begin to bleed-a hemorrhage!

America is changing and changing fast.  We are in the midst of a hemorrhage, we are bleeding and if we bleed long enough we will not recover no matter how hard we try.  The Revelation Painting is one effort to stop the flow of blood, to help society and the world understand that we disapprove and we are not like them-our “leaders” who have fallen from grace.

I want to make it perfectly clear that I AM NOT ANTI-GOVERNMENT, I AM NOT A COMMUNIST, I am an intelligent person, a parent and a member of  a once empathetic society which genuinely cared for one another as some still do.  I am aware of my community, my nation, and the world…it is as close to me as feeling my own heartbeat and the America I used to know.